The importance of the uterus
The uterus has to allow the passage of sperm: a few days after fertilization the embryo reaches the uterus and is implanted in its inner layer called the endometrium; subsequently it also has to offer adequate conditions for the fetus to develop in its interior.
The initial assessment of the uterus is done with vaginal ultrasound. It allows us to observe the morphology of the uterus, the endometrial cavity and the ovaries. Abnormalities such as fibroids, uterine polyps or ovarian cysts can be diagnosed and in some cases it will be necessary to operate. In some patients it is indicated to deepen the study of the endometrium by antecedents of abortions, of pelvic infections or by observing alterations in the ultrasound, and a hysteroscopy is performed.
Hysteroscopy is performed in consultation: through the cervix a thin cannula connected to a screen is inserted to visualize the endometrial cavity. They also take samples for biopsy (study of the cells that make up the endometrium) and for cultures of Chlamydias, Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas that allow us to rule out endometritis.
Endometritis is an infection that does not cause symptoms to the patient but that can prevent the implantation of the embryo; in these cases, treatment with antibiotics is indicated.
In order to study the vascularization of the endometrium, a vaginal echo-Doppler is performed, which allows us to rule out alterations in blood flow.